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Oumar MakalouOumar Makalou, Mali
Center of Studies and Research for Democracy, Economics and Social Development

Oumar Makalou is President and Director of the Center of Studies and Research for Democracy, Economics and Social Development (CERDES); President of the Malian Coalition for Education to Democracy (COMED); Member of the International Steering Committee of the Non-Governmental Process of the Community of Democracies (ISC), President of the Executive Secretariat of the Non-Governmental Process of the Community of Democracies, during Malian Presidency.

CERDES  was founded by Makalou  and  some Malians members of  Diaspora  and the democratic movement, at the margin of the National  Sovereign  Conference  held after the bloody change  of regime in March 1991 which drew new Constitution, a Charter  for Political Parties, an Electoral Code and a review of the state of Nation, In 1992  CERDES  with the support of Americans  Friends of Mali, helped  create the Association  for the protection and defense of Women,  the Women Law practitioners  Organization, the National Committee for Equal Access by Candidates to State owned  media, and the first  live  TV- RADIO  debates between presidential candidates; Later in 1997, jointly with Civil Society from 9 African countries we drafted  and imposed  the creation of Independent  National Electoral Commissions; That same year  CERDES published a book on the Process  toward Democracy since Independence in 1960. Makalou started his professional life in French financial services and joined Malian administration after independence. He served in financial public services, in the Ministry of Finances, the President Office, the Central Bank …. And left to the International Monetary Fund, as Deputy Director of the African Department and Senior Advisor of the IMF Institute.

Makalou got his bachelor degree in Political Economy, his Master and Doctorate in Economics, at Paris University Pantheon Sorbonne.

He published a book on the problem of budget equilibrium in developing countries, edited by Francois Maspero in Paris in 1970, titled Privatization in Africa: A Critical Analysis Global Development Network, Bonn, 1999, and other Study on Agricultural Subsidies by Industrialized Countries and their Consequences on the Poor Farmers in Developing Countries, IREN, 2003 Mombasa, Kenya, in Reclaiming Africa, December 2004.


Africa (sub-Saharan)   Europe

Hannah Forster, African Centre for Democracy and Human Rights Studies, The Gambia

Paul Graham, Freedom House, South Africa

Oumar Makalou, Center of Studies and Research for Democracy, Economics and Social Development, Mali

Dieudonné Zognong, HUMANUS International, Cameroon



Yuri Dzhibladze, Center for the Development of Democracy and Human Rights, Russia

David French, Convener Associates, United Kingdom

Matteo Mecacci, International Campaign for Tibet, Italy

Ilona Mihaies, Euroregional Center for Democracy, Romania

Roel von Meijenfeldt, Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy, Netherlands


The Americas   Middle East/North Africa

Gustavo Amaya, CECADE, El Salvador

Morton Halperin, Open Society Institute, United States

Carlos Ponce, Latin American and Caribbean Network for Democracy, Venezuela

Andrea Sanhueza, Corporación PARTICIPA, Chile



Hoda Chalak, Organization for Civil Action, Lebanon

Sameer Jarrah, Arab World Centre for Democratic Development, Jordan

Mohsen Marzouk, Arab Democracy Foundation, Qatar/Tunisia

Reza Eslami-Somea, Shahid Beheshti University, Iran


Asia   Ex-Officio Members

Chee Soon Juan, Alliance for Reform and Democracy in Asia, Singapore

Michael Kau, Taiwan Foundation for Democracy, Taiwan

George Mathew, Institute for Social Sciences, India

Gus Miclat, Initiatives for International Dialogue, The Philippines

Vo Van Ai, Que Me: Action for Democracy in Vietnam, Vietnam


Mantas Adoménas, Institute of Democratic Politics, Lithuania

João Carlos Espada, Institute for Political Studies, Catholic University of Portugal

Zanaa Jurmed, Center for Citizen's Alliance, Mongolia

Robert LaGamma, Council for a Community of Democracies, United States

Dorota Mitrus, European Institute for Democracy, Poland

Erdenejargal Perenlei, Open Society Forum, Mongolia

Steven Wagenseil, Council for a Community of Democracies